Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations: Durand Line Dispute History, Learn Why…

Relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan: There are two countries on the map of South Asia. Both are neighbors of India. Both are notorious, so there is only one reason: terrorism. The first country is Pakistan which is the messiah of terrorists and the second is Afghanistan which has been the biggest training center for terrorists. That is why there has been a very cordial relationship between the two countries for a long time… it has been a relationship of bread and daughter… ammunition-weapons-terrorists, when what was needed was fulfilled by the other for one. .

Afghanistan) When Pakistan had to fight with Russia and then with the United States, Pakistan) dispatched fighters. When Pakistan had to go to war against India or carry out terrorist attacks, Afghanistan sent terrorists. Their relationship remained like this… But now there is a break in this relationship. This gap has become such a deep chasm that both countries are eager to wage war with each other. After all, how the long-standing friendship between these two countries turned into such enmity and what changed in the politics of Afghanistan and Pakistan that both countries became thirsty for each other’s blood, an analysis will be made on this topic today.

Durand Line, the border that separates Pak-Afghan
On August 14, 1947, when Pakistan was created as a new country by dividing India on the basis of religion, it inherited the border line with Afghanistan, which is called the Durand Line. One end of this 2670 km long border line meets China and the other with Iran. However, now this Durand Line is the real reason for the war between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Its history is about 130 years old. Then India was ruled by the British. To expand their rule, the British attacked Afghanistan in the year 1839. It was said then that the sun never sets on the British Raj, but the dream of the British was shattered in Afghanistan. About two years after the initial success in the war, the Afghan forces defeated the British Army, and the British had to return from Afghanistan empty-handed. But the British did not give up. About 36 years after the defeat in the first Anglo-Afghan War, the British made another attempt.

In 1878 the British attacked Afghanistan again and this time the British managed to win. It was recorded in the history books as the Second Anglo-Afghan War. After winning this war, there was a treaty between Sir Lewis Kavanaghari on behalf of the British and King Mohammad Yakub Khan on behalf of Afghanistan, which was called the Gandamak Treaty. But within a few days, Mohammad Yakub Khan refused to accept this treaty. He again wanted to establish his control over all of Afghanistan. The result was that the British retaliated. There was a fierce battle at Kandahar, in which the British again won. Following this, the British elected Abdul Rahman Khan as their ruler and renewed the Gandamak treaty, in which it was decided that the British would now not attack any part of Afghanistan.

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Following this treaty, the government of British India sent an English officer, Mortimer Durand, to Kabul in 1893, so that there could be an agreement with the ruler of Afghanistan, Abdul Rahman Khan, on a cultural, economic, military and political level as a as well as international trade. On November 12, 1893, an agreement was reached between British India and Afghanistan, in which the boundaries of the two countries were determined. Officials from both sides sat down in the town of Parachinar, near Afghanistan’s Khost province, and a line was drawn on the map between the two countries. This line is called the Durand Line. Along this line, a new province of the North West Frontier Province was created, which is generally called Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This part reached British India. Apart from this, FATA i.e. Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Border Regions also reached British India while Nuristan and Wakhan went to Afghanistan.

However, along with this partition, an ethnic group was also divided. This group was Pashtuns, who lived near the Durand Line. Due to the drawing of the line, more than half of the Pashtuns remained in British India and the rest went to Afghanistan. But there was another ethnic group that was in the part of British India. This group was of Punjabis. The Pashtuns and Punjabis used to fight each other, but due to the drawing of the line, the Pashtuns were weakened and their force went to Afghanistan. These Pashtuns who went to Afghanistan became such fighters, that they launched attacks against the Punjabis, who were recruited in abundance into the British Indian Army.

However, it happened after the partition that the British began to connect their part of the provinces with railways, while the people who went to Nuristan near Afghanistan were forcibly converted to Islam by the ruler of Afghanistan, Abdul Rehman Khan. But this arrangement between British India and the Afghan rulers could not last long. In May 1919, British India invaded Afghanistan again, known to history as the Third Anglo-Afghan War. To end this war, on August 8, 1919, there was an agreement between the British Empire and Afghanistan at Rawalpindi. In which it was decided that the British Empire would recognize Afghanistan as an independent country, while Afghanistan would consider the Durand Line as an international border line. But after August 14 and 15, 1947, the situation changed again.

When India became independent and Pakistan became a new country. Then with independence, Pakistan inherited this Durand Line, which used to separate Pakistan from Afghanistan. During this, the greatest difficulties were faced by the Pashtuns, who lived on the border with Afghanistan. The problem with them was that at the time the Durand Line was drawn, their families were so divided that some went to Afghanistan and others stayed in Pakistan. There were constant differences between the two countries in this regard. Meanwhile, it was fired from the Afghan side near the Durand Line. The newly formed Pakistan responded to this shot by sending the Air Force and the Pakistan Air Force carried out an air strike on a village in Afghanistan built near the Durand Line. After this attack on July 26, 1949, Afghanistan announced that it does not accept the Durand Line. But then Britain intervened.

In June 1950, it became clear from the British side that the border line between Pakistan and Afghanistan would only be the Durand Line. But this problem could never be solved. Pakistan and Afghanistan often clashed on this issue. Then, in 1976, Sardar Mohammad Dawood Khan, the ruler of Afghanistan, paid an official visit to Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. There he said that Afghanistan recognizes the Durand Line as an international border line. After that, Pakistan-Afghanistan relations were settled. There was a friendship between the two and it became so strong that when the Soviet Union sent its forces to Afghanistan, Pakistan deployed its fighters to the Afghan border to fight against the Soviet forces.

Pakistan’s intelligence agency, ISI, has also sent mujahideen to Afghanistan to fight at the instigation of the US intelligence agency, the CIA. Then, when some peace was restored in Afghanistan and there was no chance of war after the US and Russia left, the mujahideen from Afghanistan also came to help Pakistan against India. But when the Taliban took over Afghanistan in 1996, the Taliban again opposed the Durand Line. The Taliban said there is no need for any border line between the two Islamic countries. The matter that was quiet for almost 20 years suddenly started to catch fire again. Not only this, when the US liberated Afghanistan from Taliban occupation and appointed Hamid Karzai as the new president, Hamid Karzai also refused to accept this line of Durand’s, because Hamid Karzai himself is a Pashtun.

Hamid Karzai had said that this Durand Line is a wall of hate between two brothers. After the departure of Hamid Karzai from power, Afghanistan is once again under the control of the Taliban. And the Taliban are sticking to their old attitude that they don’t accept the Durand Line at all. The result is that the tension between Pakistan and Afghanistan is increasing.

If you make a list of the most dangerous places in the world, then this Durand line drawn between Afghanistan and Pakistan is always on that list. Because when it will happen here, when the bombs will start to explode, when there will be shots, nobody knows. It is the fate of those who live near the Durand Line who always have to seek life in the midst of the fear of death. To reduce this fear and protect itself from attacks from Afghanistan, Pakistan had started encircling this Durand Line in the year 2017, which is now almost complete. But the Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and especially in the border areas of Afghanistan have always opposed this encirclement of Pakistan. Since the Taliban regained power in Afghanistan on August 15, 2021, the conflict between the two countries over the Durand Line has further escalated.

Now there is continuous shooting between the Afghan army and the Pakistan army in the border area and a war situation is being created between the two countries. But recently the situation worsened when Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan, the Pakistani version of the Taliban in Afghanistan, captured the Bannu Anti-Terrorism Center located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and took many people hostage. After three days of military action, the Pakistani army killed all the TTP terrorists and released the hostages. But this again added fuel to the dormant relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Although the Afghan Taliban have been considering this TTP as an internal Pakistani affair, the reality is that the TTP has been receiving fuel from the Afghan Taliban. Because the language of both against Pakistan and the purpose of both is the same. The Afghan Taliban also say that the Durand line is wrong and that Pakistan is ruling the Pashtun people. TTP working area is also the area near Durand Line and he also says that his government will run in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa near Durand Line and Pakistan Army will have to withdraw from here.

In general, when it comes to Islam alone, these two countries and their terrorists may seem united against the world and carry out united terrorist activities against all countries in the world, but when it comes to themselves, both the country and its rulers they actually live against each other, the root of which is the line drawn during the British era, which is called the Durand Line. This is the whole story of the deteriorating relations between Pakistan-Afghanistan and the terrorists.

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