Neurosurgery: In Search of ‘Waterhead’ ..

Dr. Jayadev Panchwag

Water cavities inside the brain have been known since 1510. However research on diseases and treatments was only after 1875.

We saw in a previous article how the method of diagnosing brain diseases was started in 1918 by releasing air into the brain cavity and then taking skull x-rays. The father of this method, Dr. Walter Dundee, has made significant contributions to the field of brain and spinal surgery. Early in his career, Dandy began researching blood pressure. Hydrocephalus is a waterborne disease in which the circulation of water that forms in the brain cavities and goes out of those cavities and surrounds the brain and spinal cord is disrupted for some reason. (Little was known about the disease at the time).

Experiments on dogs’ brains with Dr. Blackfan in the 1913s showed that they could drown if they suddenly had a blockage in their brain cavity. In the same way it also shows how the unconscious animal becomes as stylish again as it was magically, if the pressure is increased so that the water pressure decreases at the right time by piercing the animal’s skull through a thin tube. .

There are many types of headwaters and this is definitely not the right place to go. But in order for this water pressure playing around the brain and spinal cord to increase, the technology of extracting water or its mechanism of circulation inside needs enlightenment.

Accelerates autopsy research

In the second century, Claudius Galen wrote extensively about the brain cavities of animals. Since autopsies were forbidden in those days, much observation was made based on the brain structures of the animals. After the 15th century, human autopsies were gradually resumed.

Leonardo da Vinci himself disassembled the human brain and published a picture of the brain cavity in 1510. Earlier, in 1505, he dissected the bull’s brain and studied its cavities. He observed that the colored solution inserted into that cavity flowed from one cavity to another, eventually coming out of the brain and accumulating under its lining. To easily understand the complex structure of these cavities in three dimensions, Leonardo created a mold by adding thin and flowing colored wax to the cavity. It was the time of the emergence of observational studies. For the past 1500 years, such studies have been banned due to the rules of various religions and the clergy’s grip on the minds and authority of the clergy.

This is 1500 years after the birth of Christianity. Three new religions were established during this period. (Christian, Buddhist and Muslim). The business of writing rules that are different from the scriptures and punishing people for behaving contrary to them is constantly going on. One of the regulations is a ban on autopsies. The head of this theocracy hated the study that could lead to the truth of nature.

After 1875 ..

From about 1500 to 1875, many experiments were performed on the gastrointestinal tract. However, water in the brain is formed from the choroid plexus, which appears pink and sweet and attaches to the edges of the cavity, then this water flows from one cavity in the brain to another and is reabsorbed into the blood. The process we know today is then completely unknown. It was first discovered in 1875 by Hendrik Key (‘E8) and Magnus Ritzius. This is one of the most important innovations in the functioning of the nervous system.

There are different types of hydrocephalus and there are many different treatments for it. This space is not enough for that. But the thing to remember is that a sudden blockage of the brain cavity and stagnant water for a few hours is a serious condition. If this happens, the brain’s c. T. Water pressure should be reduced by making a scan or MRI to confirm the diagnosis. The second type of hydrocephalus is slow growing. This means that in this case, the obstruction in the drainage process occurs very slowly. In such cases, the person does not faint suddenly, but the symptoms increase over a period of days or months. This type of disease can be cured by diagnosis.

Apart from these two types of heads, another type also needs to be known. This type is called NPH. In this disease, the water pressure in the brain cavity increases for some time during the day. In short, the pressure ‘waves’ increase from time to time. At other times the stress is almost ‘normal’. Hence the name Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. Because what is the disease if there is ‘normal’ stress? But the name sticks to it.

NPH is a disease that mainly affects the elderly. But before this it rarely happened. Symptoms of urticaria include loss of urination, which can occur as soon as you go to the bathroom. Another feature is the difference in gait. You have to walk in confusion not knowing how to take small steps and not knowing how to move forward. That is not to say that it is a balance. In English it is called ‘apraxia’. The third symptom is that people around you feel their IQ is declining. Often forgetfulness, intellectual confusion, etc.

All three of these symptoms now appear even after brain damage in old age.

However if these symptoms appear at that time there is no big treatment. However, if the disease is caused by NPH, it can be treated by reducing the water pressure in a controlled manner. NPH can not be diagnosed too often or too late due to a misunderstanding of these symptoms.

Needless to say, with age, some people find it difficult to treat symptoms such as progressive forgetfulness, loss of balance while walking and lack of control over urination. However, similar symptoms can occur in NPH and if diagnosed in a timely manner, NPH can be cured.

Treatment of hydrocephalus depends on its type. Peritoneal shunt in the ventricle is one of the most common surgical procedures to treat this disease. However, this type of tube has a very sensitive ‘valve’ that can measure the pressure in the tube, thereby further controlling the flow of water to the brain. The brain releases some water only when the pressure in the brain reaches a certain level. There are many types of shunts. Another method used in some types of hydrocephalus is to insert an endoscope into a brain cavity and drill a hole one centimeter deep in the bottom of the cavity. Although it is a surgery in the deepest part of the brain, it can be done in twenty-one minutes using an endoscope.

Father of surgery

Over the next 20 years, since 1920, Dr. Walter Dundee’s research on reservoirs is still invaluable. He also has extensive research in other areas of neurosurgery. The scope of that research is that it is only possible to review Dundee’s research in neurosurgery before concluding the article.

He was the first person to perform surgery to close a neural tube in a blood vessel in the brain. Vestibular squamous cell carcinoma is the first surgery to completely remove a difficult tumor, including surgery on the pineal gland and brain surgery to treat severe dizziness. Walter became Dundee.

He was the first person to find a cure for the excruciating pain of the facial nerve (specific nerve fibers near the brain were cut).

Dr. The talent and work of a person like Dandy is so great, so many pages are not enough.

This is where Tortas stops.

(Author Brain and Spine Surgeon.)

2022-05-15 19:46:00

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