Indo-China border dispute: Why did it come up after 45 years?

Image copyright REUTERS 1962 - Indo-China war, this battle lasted for about a month and its area was spread from Ladakh to Arunachal Prades...

India-China border disputeImage copyrightREUTERS
1962 - Indo-China war, this battle lasted for about a month and its area was spread from Ladakh to Arunachal Pradesh.
1967 - Many soldiers from China and India were killed in Nathu La. Both countries make different claims about the number.
1975 - LAC in Arunachal Pradesh was attacked by Chinese Army on Indian Army patrol.
In the history of India-China relations, the year 2020 will also be mentioned like 1962, 1967 and 1975. The reason is clear: after 45 years in the India-China border dispute, such a number of soldiers have lost their lives.
It is not that the tension on the border between the two countries is something new, but the two countries have allowed trade and investment to go on for a long time by maintaining political relations between the efforts to resolve the border dispute by mutual consent.nullnull.
In the last six years, since the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi has taken power, there have been 18 meetings and talks between the two countries. All these efforts were seen as an initiative to improve relations between the two countries.
Therefore, after the violent clashes along the border in the last two days, everyone is asking the question, what happened suddenly? Why did the matter between India and China become so bad that it reached a violent conflict.
Is the construction of road in Ladakh the concern of China or is it something else?
The BBC spoke to experts tracking the relations between the two countries. According to him, road construction in eastern Ladakh may be one reason, but not the only reason.
India-China borderImage copyrightPIB

Road Construction

In the annual report for the year 2018-19, the Ministry of Defense of India had said that the government has marked 3812 km area for road construction on the India-China border.
Of these, the work of constructing 3418 km of road has been given to the Border Roads Organization. Most of these projects have been completed.
Experts of the India-China border dispute are of the opinion that this construction work is the real reason for the dispute between the two countries.
Senior journalist Rahul Singh, who covers defense-related matters in the Hindustan Times, also agrees and says, "For the last five years, there has been more attention on improving Indian borders."
According to him, "There have been small skirmishes between the two armies on the border earlier. Even before Doklam, such incidents were reported in Chumar in 2013 and 2014. But the scope of this time's activities is huge."
Former Major General Ashok Mehta described the cause of the growing Chinese activity along the Line of Actual Control as "the construction of bridges and runways that has increased Indian patrols."
According to him, many cases are related to each other in this tension behind you. He says that we should not forget that when India abolished the special status of Jammu and Kashmir and released maps of two new union territories, China was not happy that there was also Aksai Chin in the Indian territory of Ladakh. "
LadakhImage copyrightGETTY IMAGES

Article 370 abolished

The Government of India decided to abolish the provisions of Article 370 giving special status to Jammu and Kashmir on 5 August 2019. After which two Union Territories were created - one Jammu and Kashmir and the other Ladakh.
China had opposed this decision of the Indian government, especially to move the Ladakh region from Jammu and Kashmir to a union territory.
Opposing India's decision, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hui Chuning had said at the time, "China always opposes Chinese territory on its western border showing India in its border."
Harsh Pant, head of the Strategic Study Program at the Observer Research Foundation, believes that China has been seeing this step of India as a threat to itself.
Following India's decision on Kashmir, Chinese spokesman Hu Chuning said, "Recently, India has questioned the sovereignty of China by changing its domestic law. This step of India is unacceptable and will have no effect." "
The whole matter also arose in the Security Council of the United Nations. An informal meeting was also held on this issue, but India, while presenting its stand there, clearly stated that the removal of Article 370 is an internal matter of India.
Harsh Pant believes that China continued its protest along with protesting. When the cold ended in April, he again started deploying his troops in that area.
India-China border

Chinese control over Karakoram

In addition to 38,000 square kilometers of Aksai Chin, more than 5,000 square kilometers of the Shaksgam Valley are controlled by China.
The Shaksgam Valley is spread on both sides of the Shaksgam River originating from the Karakoram mountains. Pakistan had taken possession of it in 1948. Later in 1963, Pakistan ceded the area to China under an agreement.
Pakistan believed that this would enhance friendship between the two countries and also argued that since there was no international border already set up, there was no harm in handing it over to Pakistan.
Pakistan had entered into an agreement with China on this area. Today, China and Pakistan do business with each other on the Karakoram highway built here, which connects the two countries through Western Kashmir.
According to Harsh Pant, if India succeeds in the administrative changes taking place in Ladakh and strengthens the infrastructure in terms of troops in that area, then the time that China goes through Karakoram directly towards Pakistan, the time to come I can get trouble In this sense, China also wants to keep its grip on the Ladakh border strong.
Xi JinpingImage copyrightGETTY IMAGES

China's internal politics

Many experts believe that the President of China is facing difficulties on many fronts these days. In fact, Xi Jinping is going through the most difficult phase of his eight-year rule.
The whole world witnessed the violent protests in Hong Kong over the controversial extradition bill. On the other hand, the challenge of the ruling Communist Party in Taiwan is getting complicated.
Criticism is also increasing internationally on the government's policies against the Weigar Muslims of China's Xinjiang Province.
The Corona epidemic has completed its true success. Recently, a resolution was introduced in the World Health Assembly consisting of 194 member countries that the matter should be investigated from where the corona virus causing harm worldwide started.
This assembly is the main policy making unit of the World Health Organization (WHO). Apart from other countries, India also supported this proposal.
The issue of unannounced trade war between the US and China is also not hidden from anyone.
The last full year has been difficult for Chinese President Xi Jinping. These are all such examples which show that Xi Jinping is facing difficulties not only on the economic front but also on the political front.
According to Harsh Pant, in such difficult circumstances, this can also be a way for the Chinese President to awaken the feeling of nationalism in the public.
South China Sea, Taiwan and India - China is doing this kind of work on every border.
Harsh Pant considers this as an initiative to project 'Military Nationalism'. According to him, there is a difference between the South China Sea and the India border. The conflict is not so violent because of the maritime boundary in the South China Sea, but the border with India is geographical, so even border disputes with India become violent. Mobilization of troops in South China Sea takes a little longer.
Xi Jinping, Narendra ModiImage copyrightGETTY IMAGES

India's foreign policy and economic reasons

On 17 April this year, the Government of India made a shocking decision.
The central government has further tightened the FDI rules in the country for the neighbors whose boundaries meet each other.
Under the new rule, before taking part in any Indian company, it has now been made mandatory to get government permission since most of the neighbors have trade with China, then it will also have the most impact on them.
One of the main reasons for this decision was the purchase of 1.75 crore shares of People's Bank of China, India's largest private bank, HDFC by the Central Bank of China. Earlier, China had been investing recklessly in Indian companies.
MM Khan, an international economy expert and former professor of Jamia Millia Islamia, believes that "military and economic are the areas where China changes foreign policy from time to time to establish its global domination."
He said, "After Corona, there is chaos in the world's stock markets and China is investing in companies in big countries. You see South Asia. Chinese debt in infrastructure and technology majors in Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Or will get investment. "
Now if India suddenly made a big change in its FDI policy, then it is quite possible that China's foreign policy is feeling a bit uncomfortable.

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